Domain Kognitif Bloom

Proses Pembelajaran dan pengajaran adalah proses yang berterusan yang berlaku dalam sesebuah bilik darjah. Sepanjang proses pengajaran tersebut, guru perlu mengesani tahap pencapaian pelajar samada mengikuti atau membelakangi pembelajaran tersebut. Cara mudah nak mengesannya ialah melalui penyoalan dalam kelas. Tahap penyoalan sama ada aras rendah, sederhana atau tinggi boleh disesauikan dengan aras kognitif Bloom. Berikut dikemukakan jadual domain kognitif bloom sebagai panduan. Aras kesukaran soalan yang dikemukakan boleh disesuaikan dengan penggunaan kata kerja seperti dicadangkan dalam taksonomi bloom: 

level category or ‘level’ behaviour descriptions examples of activity to be trained, or demonstration and

evidence to be measured

‘key words’ (verbs which describe the activity to be trained or measured at each level)
1 Knowledge

(REMEMBERING)

recall or recognise information multiple-choice test, recount facts or statistics, recall a process, rules, definitions; quote law or procedure arrange, define, describe, label, list, memorise, recognise, relate, reproduce, select, state
2 Comprehension

(UNDERSTANDING)

understand meaning, re-state

data in one’s own words, interpret, extrapolate, translate

explain or interpret meaning from a given scenario or statement, suggest treatment, reaction or solution to given problem, create examples or metaphors explain, reiterate, reword, critique, classify, summarise,

illustrate, translate, review, report, discuss, re-write,

estimate, interpret, theorise, paraphrase, reference, example

3 Application

(APPLYING)

use or apply knowledge, put

theory into practice, use knowledge in response to real

circumstances

put a theory into practical

effect, demonstrate, solve a

problem, manage an activity

use, apply, discover, manage, execute, solve, produce, implement, construct, change, prepare, conduct, perform,

react, respond, role-play

4 Analysis

(ANALYSING)

interpret elements,

organizational principles, structure, construction, internal

relationships; quality, reliability of individual components

identify constituent parts and functions of a process or concept, or de-construct a methodology or process,

making qualitative assessment of elements, relationships, values and effects; measure requirements or needs

analyse, break down,

catalogue, compare, quantify, measure, test, examine,

experiment, relate, graph, diagram, plot, extrapolate, value, divide

5 Synthesis

(create/build)

(CREATING /

DESIGNING)

develop new unique structures, systems, models, approaches,

ideas; creative thinking, operations

develop plans or  procedures,

design solutions, integrate

methods, resources, ideas, parts; create teams or new approaches, write protocols or contingencies

develop, plan, build, create, design, organise, revise,

formulate, propose, establish, assemble, integrate, rearrange,

modify

6 Evaluation

(EVALUATING)

assess effectiveness of whole concepts, in relation to values,

outputs, efficacy, viability; critical thinking, strategic

comparison and review; judgement relating to external

criteria

review strategic options or

plans in terms of efficacy,

return on investment or costeffectiveness, practicability; assess sustainability; perform a SWOT analysis in relation to alternatives; produce a financial justification for a proposition or venture, calculate the effects of a plan or strategy; perform a detailed and costed  risk analysis with recommendations and

justifications

review, justify, assess, present

a case for, defend, report on, investigate, direct, appraise,

argue, project-manage

 

 

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